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  • corticosterone Consistently with the above discoveries it ha


    Consistently with the above discoveries, it has been also shown that in cardiomyocytes with shRNA-down-regulated FBP2, mitochondria are more susceptible to depolarisation (Gizak et al., 2012a) and H2O2-induced oxidative stress (Wiśniewski et al., 2017). In corticosterone overexpressing FBP2 (cardiomyocytes and sqamous cell lung cancer, KLN205) the production of cellular ROS strongly decreased and mitochondrial membrane polarisation is not reduced under hyperoxic conditions (H2O2 treatment) (Wiśniewski et al., 2017). However, remarkably, in hypoxic conditions FBP2 ceases to interact with mitochondria and loses its pro-survival potential (Wiśniewski et al., 2017). In such conditions, the cells with partially silenced FBP2 expressions are almost 2- and 4-times more viable than, respectively, wild-type cells and cells overexpressing FBP2 (Wiśniewski et al., 2017). Hypoxia is typical for many cancers. Thus, the above results are in agreement with studies showing that in cancer cells, FBPase (mainly the FBP1 isoform) level is frequently reduced and its overexpression under hypoxia reduces the level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein (Li et al., 2014; Shi et al., 2017). HIF-1α is a transcription factor that not only regulates glucose metabolism but also induces angiogenesis and thus, helps cancer cells overcome hypoxic conditions. Therefore, FBPase-dependent decrease of HIF-1α inhibits cancer growth, migration and survival (Shi et al., 2017). The anticancer activity of FBPase seems not to be restricted to FBP1 as it has been shown that in gastric cancer, FBP2 negatively regulates cell growth and a reduced expression of FBP2 contributes to carcinogenesis (Li et al., 2013). In line with this, the study of Wiśniewski et al. (Wiśniewski et al., 2017) has demonstrated that in normoxy and hyperoxy, FBP2 interacts with and protect mitochondria as dimer but in the hypoxic, cancer-like conditions, FBP2 no longer associates with the organelles which, consequently, results in a shift in the cellular FBP2 dimer-tetramer balance towards the tetramer which is prone to inhibition by allosteric effectors and R-to-T transition.
    FBPases as regulators of nuclear processes Since the discovery of nuclear localisation and active nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of FBP2 in cardiomyocytes (Gizak and Dzugaj, 2003; Gizak et al., 2004) and FBP1 in hepatocytes and renal cells (Yáñez et al., 2003), it has been demonstrated that FBP2 may be present in nuclei of several other cells, such as KLN205 and human squamous lung cancer cells (Mamczur et al., 2012), smooth muscle (Gizak et al., 2005), muscle satellite (Gizak et al., 2006) and neonatal retina cells (Mamczur et al., 2010). FBP1 has also been shown to localise in nuclei of some cancer cells: renal carcinoma (Li et al., 2014) and breast cancer cells (Shi et al., 2017). The evidence of such localisation is, however, controversial because of relatively low quality of images showing nuclear localisation of the isozyme in renal carcinoma (Li et al., 2014) and probable contamination of nuclear extract with cytoplasmic proteins in samples from breast cancer cells (Shi et al., 2017). In contrast, the nuclear accumulation of FBP1 in liver and kidney cells has been clearly demonstrated (Yáñez et al., corticosterone 2003) and it has been shown that its subcellular distribution is modulated by nutritional stimuli (Yanez et al., 2004). It has also been shown that the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling is impaired during diabetes (Bertinat et al., 2012). While the mechanism of FBP1 transport to nuclei is unclear, FBP2 nuclear localisation has been shown to depend on the presence of 203KKKGK207 motif which is the classical Nuclear Localisation Sequence (NLS) and is observed in primary structures of FBP2 in all vertebrate groups (Gizak et al., 2009). In contrast to FBP1, which nuclear localisation depends on availability of nutrients, muscle FBPase nuclear distribution is regulated by extracellular signals and cell cycle stage. In silico analysis of the tertiary structures of FBP2 revealed that the enzyme possess on its molecular surface three cyclin recognition sites (Gizak et al., 2005), also found in a wide range of cyclin/cdk interacting proteins. Interaction of these motifs with cyclins has been proved to increase the level of phosphorylation by cyclin/cdk complexes (Takeda et al., 2001). Experimental data also point to relevance of nuclear retention of FBP2 and proliferation.